Aldo Leopold, wildlife biologist, forester and farmer was the author of the celebrated A Sand County Almanac. His words offer a perspective of enormous significance to the farming community
Leopold often used the words the Land Ethic. He wrote: The Land Ethic simply enlarges the boundaries to include soils, waters, plants and animals. And as a result he stated that the Land Ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow members.
And that respect is expressed in one’s behavior to the members of the community. So it means moving from past behaviors of control and kill of carnivores, to creating ways to farm where carnivores are viewed as essential members of the ecosystem…they are included in the Land Ethic.
We are living in a time of Transition, of learning new and positive ways to communicate with these intelligent and sentient beings. I find it interesting to consider that carnivores also are continuing to learn about us. Native Peoples did not farm with domestic livestock, they hunted for their food. But with the arrival of the Europeans, domestic animals presented a whole new experience for the carnivores on the American continent.
I would encourage you to read A Sand County Almanac.
I had the opportunity to read concerns and possible remedies that our Maine Farm Bureau wrote about on their website. If you read the following carefully, you will find that the colonial world view is still very much alive and well. So the answer to wildlife that pose a concern to your farm is to kill them. It is not that these farmers wish to do this BUT that they know NO other way.
Read here some of what they wrote ~
“Many farms throughout Maine have experienced significant crop loss due to wildlife.”
“Our Farm Bureau agreed that farmers needed additional tools for effective deer management above and beyond what was presently available.”
“We gathered input from the farmers last Summer. We heard clearly again that while farmers knew they could SHOOT animals at any time they are damaging their crops, they didn’t want to be dressing out deer and cutting up meat, as required by law, in the middle of the night when they had to be back up at 4 AM to tend their crops. They also felt there was merit in leaving the deer carcasses in the fields to be cleaned up by coyotes. They didn’t believe they should have to pay to hire others to remove deer or other troublesome animals.”
“Also, they didn’t believe issuance of doe permits were very effective at managing deer populations; and they were concerned that federal protections for Canada geese, which have become a major problem, would prohibit farmers from employing LETHAL CONTROL procedures.”
“We learned there are additional avenues under present law that we could presently avail ourselves of. For example, we could simply field dress deer and the game wardens will pick them up, and we could leave the entrails to attract coyotes. “
“It turns out that many beaver control restrictions have been relaxed in Maine, allowing farmers to SHOOT them in most instances if the Wildlife Agency is notified in advance. It also turns out also that the federal restrictions on shooting Canada geese have been relaxed, allowing farmers to SHOOT them except during periods of migration.”
The Ultimate Tools available to vegetable farmers is the Coyote, bobcat, fox, and their fellow Avian predators…hawks, eagles and owls.
Note the two comments regarding Coyotes…just letting Coyotes clean things up. So this important apex predator, who is able to control populations of deer, beaver and Canada Geese on your farm…is just viewed as the cleanup crew.
The Farming of the Future is about viewing your farm as an ecosystem, where all the members need to be present. It is not about killing. It is not about controlling. It is about letting the wisdom of how the Earth works happen. ALLOW THE CARNIVORES TO DO THEIR WORK!
YES! You want to keep a Coyote family on your farm. When you offer them a home on your fields and forest, they will give back to you a hundred fold.
Why? Your farm is an ecosystem that needs ALL its members, and that includes the carnivores…most especially the Keystone ~ Coyote.
Dayton Hyde, author and a rancher way ahead of his time wrote:
“I thought of other species on the ranch. Without flickers, badgers, trout, deer, or chipmunks, the ranch still would have flourished. But if I took away the Coyotes, the whole system fell apart. In fact, if I were to design a kit for the beginning rancher, a pair of Coyotes would have to be included.”
I would like to introduce you now to two young farmers who continue his legacy.
I will let them speak for themselves in this short film clip ~
By Ed Robinson, Board member of the Harpswell Heritage Land Trust in Maine
“I love the plants and the land, it is an organism to be fostered,” Laura Grady stated as she tried to explain her engagement with the 100 acres upon which Two Coves Farm rests. Laura continued “We listen to the land, we work with it by spreading compost and we try to determine the best use of each parcel.”
You need to spend only a few minutes in Laura’s company to know that her connection to the land runs very deep and that the farm business is her primary life’s work.
It is understandable that Laura enjoys working with the soil and animals since her father toiled on a small farm along with several other occupations to make ends meet, in typical Maine fashion. Growing up it was clear to Laura that her life would be lived outdoors since she is “not a four walls gal.” Her husband Joe grew up in a family with more professional backgrounds but in the mid 1990s Joe became interested in organic food, then more specifically in high nutrient foods. As the young couple thought about their lives, they focused upon how to feed their family with healthy food and decided that getting back to the land was more important to them than pursuing the material side of life.
Along with many other young adults in the late 90s, the Gradys moved back to the land trying to make a go of it on 40 acres. They found that they loved the life balance the farm offered them, but 40 acres was not large enough to support both vegetables and the cattle the Gradys wanted to manage. By good fortune, they were able to strike a long-term agricultural lease with the benevolent owner of their current home, and Two Coves Farm was born 11 years ago. Joe is also the Program Director at Wolfe’s Neck Center for Agriculture & the Environment in Freeport.
As you drive down Neil’s Point Road in Harpswell, you pass a fenced in parcel with 30 pigs whom Laura says enjoy living in the open forest rather than a concrete pen. Next you see a large enclosure for chickens, part of a total flock of 350 laying hens. Across the road from the 1885 farm house is a lovely 20-acre field running down to the ocean with a fenced section for 40 ewes, 3 rams and this year’s crop of 60 lambs. A lovely Jersey cow chews her cud in the fresh spring grass. The Gradys also maintain up to 25 Belted Galloway cattle on 40 leased acres in Brunswick.
Laura talks with obvious affection about the animals in her care, although they clearly are not pets. In her experience, respecting the animals, caring for them and giving them a healthy environment is enough to ensure the animals prosper and provide healthy food products when it is time for harvest. The animals and the fields of vegetables provide produce for the Gradys’ CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) operation. The farm sells to local restaurants and shops, and currently has more than 200 CSA members. The waiting list has grown during the pandemic as people look for healthy sources of food near their homes. Laura estimated that more than 80 percent of the food she sells remains within 30 miles of the farm.
The Gradys are respectful of other wildlife that live on and around their farm, including the many birds and predator species. While they have not had problems with bald eagles, hawks sometimes decide to go for a tasty chicken dinner. Laura remembers a fisher that managed to kill five chickens, but the local foxes do not seem to cause trouble. She also recalled an incident where she fell asleep in the woods while leaning back on a tree. She awoke to find two weasels jumping over her legs but causing no harm. Laura is appreciative of neighborhood coyotes since they keep the population of mice and shrews in check, thereby lowering tick numbers. The Gradys have a 125-pound guardian dog named Tessie who spends time in the fields near the farm animals to keep an eye on potential predators and to bark at any who come too close.
Laura clearly thrives on the lifestyle offered by their farm and made it clear the Gradys are in it for the long haul. She loves living with the seasons and has a deep appreciation for the natural rhythm of life around the year. Laura is grateful for the breezes on their hilltop, since they keep the flies and mosquitoes in check. Her favorite time of year is winter when there is a bit more time to relax and enjoy the natural beauty around them.
The only downside to living on an old farm is the ongoing maintenance of buildings and equipment; it seems there is always something in need of tuning or repair.
Even her three teenage children would grudgingly admit to loving the farm life, and each of them has a special talent for certain tasks around the place.
In recent years the number of Maine acres in farm production has begun to climb after 100 years of decline. If recent trends hold true, more consumers will gravitate to the benefits of truly natural, organic foods grown near their homes instead of imported from distant countries. The Grady family will be part of the movement, cherishing life on their land and enjoying the interaction with customers who share their appreciation for local foods grown with love.
Young Coyote recovering from Mange at Wildlife Rehabilitation Center.
The use of herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers:
A new study by researchers at Case Western Reserve University and the Holden Arboretum suggests that changes we are making to the environment have the potential to make animals more susceptible to diseases and therefore may lead to population declines.
Their study suggests that human-made changes to the environment may be damaging the immune systems of a species of frog whose populations have drastically declined since the 1970s.
This research shows that land use–farming or treating lawns with herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers–can influence traits that protect animals from disease.
“By improving our understanding of the factors influencing immune defense traits capabilities, we are given the opportunity to make changes to our land management practices to better protect wildlife health” Dr Krynak said “and in all likelihood, our own health as a consequence.
Katherine L. Krynak, David J. Burke, Michael F. Benard. Landscape and water characteristics correlate with immune defense traits across Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi) populations. Biological Conservation, 2016; 193: 153 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.11.019
*** During this pandemic we are experiencing the close connection between disease in wildlife and our own species. We are all connected on this planet, and so our human behavior can cause animals to be more susceptible to disease, and this can lead to profound consequences we do not yet fully understand.
We are learning more and more about chemicals used on the landscape of farms and their effect on all the other life present there. And the picture has become very clear regarding the connection of using rodenticides…poisons to kill rodents….and the suppression of the immune systems of carnivores. It is they who hunt and eat the poisoned rodents. This has been observed in cougars, owls and other birds of prey, bobcats, coyotes and foxes.
Again, when their immune systems are compromised, they are much more susceptible to disease. One of these is mange, caused by millions of microscopic parasites that invade their skin and hair follicles. The parasites suck their blood causing severe anemia, destroy their hair follicles causing them to lose all their fur and violently scratch, leading to open weeping sores. With a severely suppressed immune system, members of these species die a slow and painful death.
As a farmer, why should you care about this?
For your farm to be healthy and productive, you want to have healthy wild ones living there with you. If for no other reason, it is to YOUR benefit. There is so much we do not know about the workings of our amazing planet and her marvelous Life…..SO
We live in a time when we are experiencing worldwide disruption of the Earth’s diverse ecosystems. And as a result of these profound disruptions, worldwide pandemics of disease, as well as local epidemics like the Lyme disease in eastern North America, continue to plague life as we know it.
Human Health is inextricably tied to the health of animals and the environment.
Human health is tied to the health of animals and the environment BUT our human behaviors are also tied to the rest of life on our planet; human behaviors are causing profound disruptions and are the underlying cause of the massive spread of disease today.
And these behaviors are uncontrolled human population growth, and this leading to humans taking over vast areas of the planet. This leaves very little space for the rest of life to survive, many wildlife forced to live in close proximity to humans. In addition, our large carnivores are being wiped out by the continued perceptions of the past.
And as wildlife habitat is destroyed, biodiversity is lost. And when biodiversity is lost, so is the resilience of the life forms left behind, causing them to more easily succumb to disease. Add to this the serious and outright killing of major carnivores whose presence, protects and supports biodiversity, and keeps their prey populations in balance.
SO YOUR FARM is a microcosm of Earth’s larger ecosystems. Your farm is an ecosystem that can be disrupted or it can be one that is rich and biodiverse. And when your farm is in balance and biodiverse, the Earth will protect you from disease that can affect both your farm animals and you.
Dayton Hyde, a highly respected rancher and writer shared his experiences regarding the value of an important carnivore on his ranch. This is what he had to say: “I thought of other species on the ranch. Without flickers, badgers, trout, deer, or chipmunks, the ranch still would have flourished. But if I took away the Coyotes, the whole system fell apart. In fact, if I were to design a kit for the beginning rancher, a pair of Coyotes would have to be included.”
Carnivores like Coyote play THE vital role in protecting from disease and keeping the balance by the part they play in the predator-prey relationship. So you want to make sure you save a place for them on your farm. You want them to be present, and you want them to thrive …so you need to make sure there is habitat and plenty of prey for them. If you do……THEY WILL TAKE CARE OF YOU!
Here is just another way to farm successfully, in the company of carnivores: Multispecies Grazing. Actually this form of farming mimics nature for there is always a diversity of grazers in a healthy natural ecosystem. And when there is this biodiversity on your farm, it all comes into balance, is resilient and healthy.
Our wild predators recognize SIZE when they seek out their prey. Large herbivores can be and are a serious threat to them, and they will think twice before attempting to hunt in their presence. So in the presence of cows, llamas or donkeys, your sheep are much safer from predation.
BUT ~ there is also what is referred to as predator pressure. This pressure can either be slight or great. You can participate in making it be slight. First: provide sufficient habitat on your farm for the carnivores AND their prey. By doing so you are allowing them to have a good living without looking toward your farm animals for sustenance. Second: protect your resident carnivores, especially ones like Coyote, Cougar and Wolf who have complex social systems. By supporting the presence of a stable family group, you protect your farm from all others.
We would like to highly recommend this excellent film of John Chester and his wife Molly. It was their goal to create a farm that would be ecologically healthy and robust. And so they set out on an adventure with results they could never have imagined. So let them take you on this journey.
But we would leave you with this thought ~ What they discovered was the immense importance of the predator prey relationship in order for their farm to be successful. They did not use this scientific term, instead they experienced it.
And finally, note how their relationship with Coyote taught them some powerful lessons: lessons about how we humans view different predators…the ones we fear, such as wild canines and snakes, and ones we do not fear, such as owls and hawks.
You may need to watch this film more than once. And every time you do, you will realize something new!
Lyme disease has become an epidemic in the United States. The bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that causes it, and the vectors that carry it continue to create an unbroken cycle of this disease. In fact the bacterium that causes it is present worldwide, and it is a highly evolved bacterium.
Epidemics are not like the flu that comes once a year
and then is gone. Instead they are a manifestation of a serious lack of balance
in the ecosystem on Earth. Here in the United States, the dramatic changes in
the landscape due to the clear cutting of 97% of the forests of the continent,
along with the killing of immense numbers of our important carnivores were the
beginnings. And as a result of these initial behaviors, the populations of the white
footed mouse, the carrier of the bacterium, reproduced in great numbers as did
the deer, whose large bodies the adult ticks breed and feed upon.
Scientists in this country are struggling to understand this bacterium that is causing this epidemic, an epidemic that is growing exponentially every year. BUT if we do not see ourselves as members of a larger community of life, and recognize what we really need to do to end the epidemic, it will continue.
BRING BACK BALANCE
SO YOUR FARM ~ Recognize your farm as an ecosystem
that needs all its members. Protect yourself from this epidemic by welcoming
carnivores like Coyotes especially, to create the balance…by hunting the
rodents and keeping the deer on the move and their numbers in balance.
This is how a COLLABORATIVE EFFORT can be a great support to our farmers seeking to farm in peace with the carnivores with whom they share their land. We are so excited to be presenting this presentation together. We encourage you to do the same.